The benefits of training laboratory primates include improved welfare, facilitated husbandry, quality of data, and human/animal relationships. Refined ways of using negative reinforcement are discussed, as well as target training and management perspectives on primate training. Several approaches to managing fear are described: systematic desensitization/counter conditioning (SD/CC) versus combined reinforcement training (NPRT).
Reactions to predators vary a lot in primates and can be passive (hiding, fleeing) or active (mobbing, alarm calls). Due to their secretive lifestyle, Neotropical titi monkeys are thought to use mainly passive crypsis and hiding as anti-predator responses. Predator mobbing has been reported only for one titi species, Callicebus nigrifrons. We report mobbing of an ocelot and Boa constrictor in red titi monkeys and Plecturocebus cupreus, and alarm calling as a reaction to tayras and raptors.
Aging Western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disorders (AIMIDs). Animal models have a crucial role in the preclinical research of disease mechanisms and therapy development. Multiple sclerosis is an AIMID specifically affecting the brain and spinal cord. We discuss here a unique MS model in common marmoset monkeys, which has provided novel insights into the disease process as well as into the mechanism of action of new therapies.
Ethiopia is well-known for its high biodiversity and endemism. Among these endemics are two putative subspecies of the guereza: Colobus guereza guereza and C. g. gallarum. Our molecular study supports the two-subspecies hypothesis, making C. g. gallarum an Ethiopian endemic taxon. In combination with its very restricted range, C. g. gallarum is most likely one of the most endangered subspecies of black-and-white colobus.
These data come from the major study on gut passage with two primate species (Callicebus coimbrai and Callicebus barbarabrownae) enclosed in the Zoobotanical Park localized in the north-eastern Brazil. During the sampling period, we have decided to obtain self-anointing and laterality data. Due to the presence of large glands in C. coimbrai and C. barbarabrownae chests, we cautiously suggest that the use of Bauhinia may be linked to olfactory communication.
Monitoring macaque health requires the detection of infectious diseases. Here, we report the screening of a macaque colony for antibodies which indicate selected viral infections. Our results show that infection with beta- and gamma-herpesviruses was frequent, while infection with simian retrovirus type D and simian T cell leukemia virus was not. Measles virus infection was more frequent in animals with extensive contact with humans, but no firm correlation could be established.
Lentiviral immunodeficiency viruses cause AIDS in humans and in non-human primates. Macaques are a suitable animal model to study infection, disease and the immune response against the retrovirus. As to prion disease, we established a rhesus monkey infection model for this unique infectious pathogen. Animals were experimentally infected with human and bovine prions. Unlike in human prion disease (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), we observed early and late stages of disease.
We present a spontaneous tumor of the meninges (meningioma) in a female pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) more than 24 years old. Clinically, the monkey displayed slow, weak, and insecure movements and poor vision. A tumorous mass was present at the floor of the cranial cavity. It compressed adjacent parts of the brain, infiltrated surrounding bones, and expanded into the throat. Microscopically, the tumor showed both meningothelial and microcystic parts.
We investigated the effect of estrogen withdrawal on bone tissue in adult female marmoset monkeys. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal tibia and the second-last lumbar vertebral body was monitored before and up to 12 months after ovariectomy. All animals lost BMD in proximal tibia, but not in the vertebra. This supports the idea that ovariectomized marmoset monkeys may serve as a model for anti-osteoporosis drug testing.
Transmission of macaque herpes B virus (BV) to humans can induce severe disease. Therefore, diagnostic tests for detecting BV infection are needed. Here, we show that antigens of BV-related non-human primate herpes viruses allow for the detection of antibodies elicited against BV with a higher sensitivity than antigens of human herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Moreover, we provide evidence that using recombinant viral glycoproteins may allow us to discriminate antibody responses against BV and HSV.
The increasing prevalence of chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorders (AIMIDs) in aging human populations creates a high unmet need for safe and effective medications. However, thus far the translation of pathogenic concepts developed in animal models into effective treatments for the patient has been notoriously difficult. The main reason is that currently used mouse-based animal models for the pipeline selection of promising new treatments were insufficiently predictive for clinical success.
Coalitions are a specific case of cooperative competition and have been explained by various factors like partner availability, distribution of fighting ability, or cost of coordination. We investigated if age is an important factor influencing coalition formation and, specifically, if males switch from a solo strategy to a cooperative one after reaching post-prime age. We found that older males formed more coalitions than younger ones, stressing the importance of age in cooperative competition.
Stem-cell-based regenerative therapies in patients, e.g., for a failing heart or Parkinson's disease, are within reach. However, studies in appropriate animal models are required to make the final step to the clinic. In this context, the baboon may represent a valuable animal model for specific purposes. Here, we generated five so-called induced pluripotent stem cell lines from the baboon, which may be useful for preclinical testing of the respective therapeutic approaches.
Despite effective antiviral therapy, HIV infection frequently leads to blood cell tumors known as lymphoma in the final disease stage. We have observed the same tumors in monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus. Tumor development coincided with and was fostered by co-infection with the tumorigenic simian homolog to human Epstein–Barr virus. Two cases of lymphoma are presented, one exhibiting an unusual cell surface marker composition and the other obstructing the urogenital tract.
Terrestrial drinking is not normally reported for arboreal primates. Here we report observations of terrestrial drinking from man-made watering holes by Temminck’s red colobus (Piliocolobus badius temminckii) at two sites in The Gambia. Our observations show that shallow man-made watering holes, not harbouring predators, were used by different age classes. The implications of this behaviour for this endangered subspecies and the trend of increasing temperatures in The Gambia are discussed.
In this paper, a co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii and Capillaria hepatica in a ring-tailed lemur is described. As a protozoan parasite, T. gondii can affect nearly all warm-blooded species, causing toxoplasmosis. In lemurs, toxoplasmosis has severe clinical manifestations leading to death. C. hepatica also affects a broad range of mammals, causing hepatic capillariasis. Although it is not known to be lethal, its potential predisposition to toxoplasmosis in our case is of great interest.
We report the first case of putative empathic response in titi monkeys (Callibebus). Pair bonds between males and females are typically strong, with substantial time spent grooming and tail twining. In an intriguing and unexpected observation we recorded an injured adult out-group male travelling with a neighbouring group. The group appeared to adapt travel patterns to allow him to accompany them, provided pro-social behaviour such as grooming and tolerated his presence at their sleeping site
Parasites play important roles in ecosystems, ultimately by affecting host health and survival. Several host traits generate differences in parasite diversity among host species living in the same habitat. We examine these traits in relation to intestinal parasitism of six sympatric lemur species. We highlight the opportunities of exploring the parasitic fauna of wildlife from a community ecology and evolutionary perspective, and identify avenues for future research on lemur parasitism.
By genotyping faecal samples from unhabituated gorillas collected over 5 years in Loango National Park, Gabon, we investigated gorilla group composition, social structure and dispersal. We identified 85 individuals, two group dissolutions, one group formation and the movement of 13 gorillas between groups. We also found that females are found in groups containing their female kin more often than expected by chance, suggesting that dispersal may not impede female kin associations in gorillas.
Inheritance by DNA and RNA as genetic elements has been known for decades. However, inheritance by proteins was completely unexpected. Proteins as carrier of genetic information have been identified in yeast where non-Mendelian inheritance could not be explained by transfer of chromosomes (DNA). Prions in yeast helped to understand structure and function of mammalian prions. The rhesus monkey has been found to be a valid animal model for prion infection and the epigenetically controlled disease.
We herein report a unique case of granulomatous arteritis in a grey mouse lemur affecting multiple organs, which is not comparable to other disease entities formerly described in nonhuman primates. The features of the entity most closely resemble disseminated visceral giant cell arteritis in humans. A concise description of the disease is given, and the differential diagnoses are discussed. An idiopathic pathogenesis is suspected.
We report on extremely rare events of group eviction and eventually lethal aggression in a group of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) that were targeted against the two highest-ranking females. These events erupted after an infanticide by the highest-ranking female directed at the offspring of a subordinate. We suggest that this aggressive changeover of power between two matrilines was based on the growing group size and was an act of female reproductive competition during birth season.
We investigated collective movements in a group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. While pauses of the first departing individual enhanced following behavior, the opposite was found for back glancing. To successfully initiate a collective movement, it seemed to be sufficient for a socially integrated group member to take action when other group members signal their willingness prior to departure and to occasionally wait for the group while moving.
We describe the acquisition, sharing and consumption of meat by wild Guinea baboons. Males were the hunters and shared meat passively only with females in their social and reproductive units. Females were able to acquire meat from sharing episodes and by scavenging from their male social partners. The presence of existing social bonds, rather than short-term exchanges of meat for sex, is likely a driving factor in the occurrence of meat sharing between males and females in this species.
For the first time internal structures of the nasal region were studied in different ontogenetic stages of selected species of tree shrews (Scandentia) based on histology and µCT. The observed morphology of the turbinal skeleton reveals important characters for future systematic analyses. The pattern of the interorbital septum, a bony plate that separates the orbits, and its relevance for the closely related Primates are discussed in terms of ontogeny and functional morphology.
This article describes the important role of online resources in enabling scientists and others to improve the care and use of non-human primates used in research, through information exchange, staff training and networking. Emphasis is given to key resources from the NC3Rs on macaque and marmoset behaviour, care and welfare; experimental design; chronic implants in neuroscience; and aspects of drug discovery and development. Use of these resources can benefit both animal welfare and science.
Here we report two encounters between olive baboons (Papio anubis) and crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus), a potential predator, at Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania. On both events, baboons gave alarm calls while infants got close to adults and juveniles ran to cover. Adult males approached the eagles and chased them away. The baboons’ reactions indeed support the assumption that crowned eagles pose a threat, at least for juvenile baboons.
We report observations fur-rubbing with leaves from the spiked pepper plant, Piper aduncum, in the San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe. As leaf extracts from this plant include insecticidal compounds, we interpret this behaviour as a defense against ectoparasites. Our observations expand the number of primate species for which this kind of self-medication is reported.
This review provides an introduction to the in vivo and in vitro germline stem cell terminology and physiology in non-human male primates. Primordial germ cell specification, migration and expansion are compared among species, and the usefulness of pluripotency markers is discussed taking immunohistochemical and molecular evidence during postnatal developmental stages into consideration. The concept of germline plasticity is critically reviewed and might present a primate-specific feature.
Humans and African great apes (AGAs) are naturally infected with several species of closely related malaria parasites. Research on AGA malaria has been driven by the need to understand the origins of human malaria and the risk of transmission of malaria parasites infecting AGAs to humans. The understanding of the ecology of AGA malaria parasites and their impact on AGA health remains relatively poor. We review current knowledge on AGA malaria and identify gaps and future research perspectives.